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PH1 : A planet in a four-star system

A family portrait of the PH1 planetary system: The newly discovered planet is depicted in this artist's rendition transiting the larger of the two eclipsing stars it orbits. Off in the distance, well beyond the planet orbit, resides a second pair of stars bound to the planetary system. Image Credit: Haven Giguere/Yale.

Image credit: Haven Giguere/Yale

Today we’re pleased to announce the discovery of the first confirmed planet discovered by Planet Hunters, and it’s a fabulous and unusual world. Labelled ‘Planet Hunters 1’ (or PH1) in a paper released today and submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, it is the first planet in a four-star system. It is a circumbinary planet – one which orbits a double star – and our follow-up observations indicate that there is a second pair of stars approximately 90 billion miles (1000 Astronomical Units) away which are gravitationally bound to the system.

This is much closer than the nearest stars are to the Sun, so anyone viewing the sky from PH1 would have a spectacular view of all four stars. More importantly, this amazing system will help us understand how and where planets can form – producing a stable planet in a system where four different stars are moving about can’t be easy. This is the seventh circumbinary planet, and the first to be in a quadruple system.

The planet itself has a radius a little more than 6 times that of Earth, making it a little bigger than Neptune. It’s mass is harder to pin down (and being in such a complicated system didn’t help), but we have a definite limit that means it must be no more than half that of Jupiter – so this is definitely a planet.

A huge amount of work went into this discovery (as well as a fair bit of observing time on the Keck and other telescopes), but a lot of the credit should be pointed at the Planet Hunters who made the discovery. It was Kian Jek and Robert Gagliano, working together on Talk that made the initial discovery; there’s a post from them on exactly what happened up already. The paper also credits Hans Martin Schwengeler, Dr. Johann Sejpka, and Arvin Joseff Tan all of whom flagged one or more of the transits before the paper was published! This is great news for us and we’re sure there are more planets hiding in data, both at the main interface and over on Talk. For today, though, we can celebrate the arrival of Planet Hunters 1!

Chris

PS We’ve announced discoveries before, of course – as well as being the first four-star planetary system, this is the first where we’ve been able to obtain not only transit information but follow up with radial velocity measurements, detecting the wobbles of the parent stars as well as the dips in light seen when the planet moves in front of them. This is the gold standard for planet discovery, and so this is officially a planet, not just a planet candidate.

PPS The paper, of course, still has to be refereed. We’ll keep you updated here as that process goes on, but as Meg is presenting the details of the system at the annual Division of Planetary Sciences meeting right now we thought you’d want to know the news as soon as possible. There will be more posts about exactly how PH1 was tracked down later in the week, so watch this space. In the meantime, you might prefer version of the paper, which has been annotated with the ScienceWISE tool in order to help explain some of the more technical language.

Planet Hunters’s First Circumbinary Planet- A True Team Effort

Today we have a guest post by Planet Hunters Robert Gagliano and Kian Jek, the discoverers of PH1, our first confirmed planet and first circumbinary planet.

Kian Jek found an anomalous dip in APH10421275 in May 2011 which turned out to be KIC 12644769 (Kepler-16b) the Kepler team’s first circumbinary planet discovery. He documented it on Talk in his thread “Strange transit in an EB”. He subsequently started a thread in the forums called “Finally-an EB with a planet?” Meg Schwamb then added a list of all known Kepler Eclipsing Binaries (EBs) with links to the light curves to this thread in November 2011.

Robert Gagliano did a systematic search of the ~ 1500 known Kepler EB’s, looking for possible planets in February 2012.  He initially spotted a possible transit in Q4.1 at day 244 in SPH10052872 and subsequently a possible 2nd matching transit at day 106 in Q2.3. Interestingly, the day 106 transit had been detected previously by JKD and commented on by Kian in the thread “Potential TERNARY System“. Robert also noted a possible 3rd transit in Q5.3 at day 379 but didn’t comment on it because it was distorted and he wasn’t sure whether this was a real 3rd transit. This Q5.3 transit was subsequently predicted by an seo company and officially confirmed by Kian.

Kian decided to check the Skyview image to be sure it wasn’t contaminated from other background stars and did an analysis to determine if the transit period, depth, and duration were consistent with a planet. He detrended the light curve with a modified smoothing filter that removed the EB eclipses, leaving the suspected planetary transits in place, and then folded the curve to confirm that the profile of the transits were similar in depth and duration. His analysis was confirmatory. Meg then assembled an outstanding science team of 10 professionals to conduct extensive follow-up observations and data analysis. Eureka! KIC 4862625 was Planet Hunters’s  “Tatooine”….we bagged our first circumbinary planet!

PlanetHunters sounding good…

PlanetHunters has inspired all sorts of activity, and all sorts of people, but I think one of the most creative responses yet is in a new song by the Regaae/rock/much else besides band Echo Movement.

There’s a track on their new album that contains sounds generated from the light-curves of KIC4665989 and KIC10291683, an eclipsing binary they (and some colleagues at Georgia Tech) found in the Planet Hunters data. You can read more about their efforts in these articles.

The band aren’t the only ones looking at turning light curves into sound – there are some excellent efforts on this talk thread too.

PS The Echo Movement song is on iTunes here (track 8!), but I hope they’ll put up a music video we can link to before too long. Perhaps illustrated with Planet Hunters data…

PPS If you have spotify’s desktop client installed, you can listen to Echo Movement’s track just by clicking here :

Turning a planet candidate into a bona fide planet

Today we have a guest post by Tom Barclay, Tom is a member of the Kepler team and also a collaborator and co-author on our second Planet Hunters paper. Tom  is a research scientist supporting the work of the Kepler mission. He got his Ph.D from University College London in the UK before moving to NASA Ames Research Center in California where he spends time improving the quality of the Kepler data products, finding new planet candidates and supporting the wider astrophysics community.

The Kepler team have found several thousand exoplanet candidates. The number of targets showing transit-like signals is increasing on a nearly daily basis as we search through light curves. However, these candidates are just that, candidates. Even though the planet candidates list is thought to have a high degree of fidelity, meaning that the vast majority of candidates are indeed real planets (somewhere in the region of 90%), it requires significant amounts of time and resources to turn a planet candidate into a planet.

I’ll start by being careful with my terminology. The Kepler team use two terms when deciding a candidate is a planet. Confirmation and validation. The former generally only used when we have spectroscopic radial velocity follow-up observations. These are measurements of the wobble induced on the star by the mass of the planet. The planet and star orbit a common point in space. When the planet is moving towards us the star moves away, and vice versa. When the star moves away it gets a little redder and when it moves towards us it get a little bluer. We measure these shifts and it tells us how fast the star is moving in along out line of sight.

Radial velocity measurements in combination with a transit give the planet’s mass and radius. A radial velocity detection of a planetary mass object (normally taken to be less than 13 Jupiter masses) is very unlikely to be erroneous and we are therefore happy to confirm the existence of a planet.

In order to measure a radial velocity a planet must be close enough and massive enough to have a measurable effect on the star. The best instruments currently available are sensitive to a periodic change in radial velocity of around 1 m/s and even getting this precision requires a bright star. The Earth causes a radial velocity pull on the Sun of around 10 cm/s, measuring with this precision is out of the question with currently available instruments. We therefore require another method to use another method if we want to turn small planet candidates into planet.

Validation of a planet

Validation of a planet applies when we use a statistical argument to say that it is much more likely that the transit signal is caused by a planet passing in front of the the target star (I’ll call it star A) that it is to be caused by something else.

There are 4 main ‘something else’, or false positive, scenarios we consider.

  1. A background eclipsing binary
  2. A background planetary system*
  3.  An eclipsing binary physically associated with the star A
  4.  A transiting star-planet system physically associated with star A (***There is some debate on whether a planet orbiting a star other than star A should really be considered a false positive. It is still a planet but it does contaminates our statistics on how many small planet are in the Galaxy.**)

A background eclipsing binary is a system of two stars that are appear fainter than star A, usually because they are far away (although they could be intrinsically faint stars which are, counter-intuitively, in the foreground between us and star A). The two fainter stars pass in front of one another much like a transiting planet does and cause a periodic dip in brightness. Because star A is much brighter than the eclipsing system, the eclipse depth appears to be much shallower than it really is and hence the eclipse looks similar to planet transiting star A.

A background planetary system is much the same as scenario (1) but the fainter system contains a star and a planet instead of two stars. If we think the transit is of a planet around the larger star A, we get the planet radius wrong. If we are not careful this scenario could cause us to claim a Jupiter-sized planet is Earth-sized.

Scenario (3) is what is known as a hierarchical triple. There are three stars in the system, star A and two lower mass stars which eclipse each other and orbit around the same center of mass as star A. This is more common than one would initially think guess. Around half of all stars are members of binary systems and in the region of 10% of these are triple or multiple star systems. The light from star A washes out the eclipse of the smaller stars and the eclipse looks much more shallow than it intrinsically is.

Finally, there is the case where a star-planet system orbits star A. The depth of the transit is decreased by the presence of extra light from star A and we get the planet radius wrong.

We try to obtain high resolution images using fancy techniques like adaptive optics imaging which changes the shape of one of the telescope’s mirrors to correct for the movement of the air in the atmosphere. These images allow us to see very close to the star and therefore look for other stars nearby in the image that could cause the transit-like signal. Typically if we don’t see star nearby star A we are able to say there are no stars further than 0.1 arcseconds away (0.00003 degrees) which could cause the transit-like signal. We are then able to make use of models of our Galaxy to predict the probability that there is a star in the right brightness range and within the allowed separation from star A that could mimic the transit signal. It is common for us to be able to say there is less than one in a million chance of a there being an allowed background star. When we take into account the probability that a background star is an eclipsing binary or hosts a planet the result is usually that it is very unlikely that there is a background eclipsing binary or star-planet system.

Ruling out a physically associated star-planet or eclipsing binary system can be much more challenging. We can again use the high resolution imaging but it is much more likely that a companion star is very close to star A than is the case for a background star. One thing on our side is that the shape of the transit can be used to rule out a stellar eclipse: eclipses are usually much more ‘V-shaped’ than the typically ‘U-shaped’ planet transit. We can often say that we cannot fit the shape we observe with a stellar binary. It is also possible to rule out planet transits around a smaller star because the timescale of the ingress and egress (the part of a transit where the planet is moving into and out of transit) does not agree with the transit depth as both these piece of information yield the planet radius. However, we really need good signal-to-noise in order to place firm constraints on the ingress and egress durations. Even so, it always gives us some information even if it is not particularly constraining and this can be used to calculate a false positive probability.

The final step is to sum up the combined false positive probabilities from the different scenarios and compare that to the probability that the transit signal is due to a planet transit around star A. If the transit scenario is much more likely (say 1000 times more likely) than a false positive we claim the planet is validated. On other occasions we have to hold our hands up and say we can’t rule out the false positive scenario with a high enough degree of confidence and the source of the signal remains a planet candidate.

The case where stars host multiple planet candidates, such as that found by the Planet Hunter in the paper by Chris Lintott, is a particularly interesting one. This is because the probability that the a multi-planet candidate system contains a false positive is much lower than for single planet candidates system, somewhere in the region of 50 times less likely. This makes validation much easier.

Planet Hunters have already shown they can find these multi-planet system. Keep searching a more will appear, especially long period ones. There is a good chance that there is an Earth-like planet hiding somewhere in the data currently available.

Searching for Earthlike Worlds

Today’s post is a guest post by Tony  Hoffman. He’s a fellow Planet Hunter and is also one of our  Planet Hunters Talk moderators. Today he’s writing about the public talk Planet Hunters PI Debra Fischer gave at the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York.

On March 30, Planet Hunters’ own Debra Fischer, professor of astronomy at Yale University, gave a talk on “Searching for Earthlike Worlds” for my astronomy club, the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York, at the American Museum of Natural History’s Kaufmann Theater. The talk was both informative and inspirational, expanded my perspective on the science of exoplanetology, and left my head spinning with the discovery possibilities that the next decades may have in store.

Dr. Fischer covered 6 broad topic areas in her talk: our place in space in time; exoplanet discovery techniques; the importance of finding many Earthlike worlds;  how do we know if a planet is “habitable” enough; how our solar system compares with others we’ve found; and astronomy as a vision plan for life on Earth.

Our Place in Space and Time

Debra started with our own solar system, describing the (now) 8 planets and other bodies, and how Earth is the only habitable world among them, and then quickly zoomed out, with the Sun as one of billions of stars in our galaxy, and the Milky Way one of billions of galaxies. “We’re such a tiny speck in a vast universe,” she said.

As to our place in time, she evoked Carl Sagan’s cosmic calendar,  a measuring stick in which the age of the universe is compressed into a single year, to try to put the time scale of the universe in human terms. In it, the Big Bang occurred as the New Year began, and we’re waiting just as the clock is about to tick over into a new year. In this scenario the Milky Way formed in May, the Sun and its planets in August. The dinosaurs arose on December 25 and went extinct on December 30. All of human history would have taken place in the last hour or so. Fischer marveled at the human ability to study and comprehend the universe around us, and wondered what humanity might be able to accomplish if we were to have the same species longevity as the dinosaurs.

She then related a brief history of exoplanetology, describing how before the discovery of 51 Pegasi in 1995, some early planet hunters despaired of finding planets and wondered if we were alone. When 51 Peg was discovered, using the radial velocity or wobble technique (which Fischer uses in her own research), many scientists were incredulous that there could be a Jupiter-sized world orbiting its star in only 4 days—how did it survive, and how was it formed? (We now know that it formed much farther out and migrated there.)

The Birth of Planet Hunters

Debra then discussed the transit method and the Kepler project, singling out Kepler-11—the 6-planet system whose small worlds were confirmed by transit timing variations: some of the transits appeared earlier or later than expected, enabling the Kepler team to calculate the mass of the planets based on their effect on each other. She also discussed “Tatooine,” the Saturn-sized world orbiting a double star.

She related how Planet Hunters began. “We were very excited about the Kepler mission at Yale,” she said. “Kevin Schwainski, an Einstein fellow at Yale, would stand in the hallway, and every morning when I’d walk in he’d say, ‘So Debra, what can we do for planet hunters? There has to be something we can do with exoplanets. People love exoplanets.’”

“I’d sort of look at him and say “Nothing I can think of.” Then in the summer of 2010, I sent my grad students and postdocs to a Sagan summer school where they looked at the Kepler data. The way that they were studying the data was inspiring. They’d take one light curve and puzzle over it. I realized that the computer algorithms to solve these systems weren’t terribly robust, and maybe we could start a new citizen science project where we’d serve up the Kepler light curves.”

She, Meg Schwamb, and others at Yale got in touch with Chris Lintott and the Oxford team running the Zooniverse, and the result is the Planet Hunters site, with which she notes the public has found exoplanets that “…fell through the cracks in the Kepler data.” Our work here has also helped the Kepler project fine-tune its search algorithms.

Another exoplanet discovery technique she mentioned is direct imaging. So far, mostly using the Keck telescope, astronomers have imaged a couple of dozen gas giants at relatively large separations from their stars. Fischer thinks that’s just the beginning, though. “We want to be at the point some day when we can take a photograph of a star, null out the light from the star, and see those pale blue dots, orbiting.”

Hundreds of Earth

Projects like Kepler and HARPS have been detecting smaller, rocky worlds, some in or near their star’s habitable zone. In order to eventually find life-bearing worlds, it’s important that we find a large sample of potentially habitable worlds. “We want to find hundreds of Earths,” she said.

Suppose we find a super-Earth that’s 10 Earth masses. How would we know if it might be habitable? “It’s tricky because the composition of a planet can vary wildly,” says Fischer.”You really want to have the mass of the planet as well as its size, so you can start to figure out whether it’s a planet like the Earth, which has a layer of molten iron, which convects turbulently and spawns a magnetic field that protects us from the solar wind, or is it something like a super-Earth that has a heavy iron and rock mantle, that may be convecting very actively, or is it in fact a water world?”

Water is one of the most common elements in the universe, and if you have a planet in the habitable zone, it’s going to have liquid water. But water doesn’t guarantee habitability. “A lot of astronomers right now are a little bit worried,” she continued. “If you don’t have an active world with plate tectonics that shoves the land up into mountains, and has the water pooling at lower levels, you’ll just end up with a planet that’s covered with a whole skin of water. Will we be able to find life on those kinds of worlds? I think the answer is yes, but it’s probably not going to be a SETI kind of life. Electronics and water usually don’t mix very well.”

She has been very involved in increasing the sensitivity of spectrographs in the Yale Doppler Diagnostic Facility, an instrumentation lab where she works with 3 post-docs, to be able to detect smaller rocky worlds. “We don’t want to build spectrographs the way they’ve always been built. We’re trying to think outside the box. How low can we go? As we increase the resolution of the spectrograph and control all of our systematic errors, we think we can get down to something like 2, 5, 10 cm/second  (instead of meters per second).”

Debra is in charge of a project that uses CHIRON, a spectrometer her team developed, to search for low-mass, rocky planets around Alpha Centauri A and B, the nearest star system to Earth. If planets are found there, she thinks that eventually humans will send space probes there—not spaceships filled with humans, but nanotechnology-inspired micro-ships more like cell phones, which can take pictures and “phone home”.

In the next decade, Fischer expects spectroscopy to be a powerful tool in helping to determine the potential habitability of the worlds we find, as astronomers look for the chemical signatures they associate with life. “What you’re going to see in the next decade is transmission spectra from transiting planets,” said Fischer. “The planet’s light also disappears when it passes behind the star. By dividing out the starlight, you can see the spectrum of the planet.”

Fischer also noted that the science is changing, borrowing and learning from other disciplines.”Exoplanet discoveries used to happen in isolation,” she said,” but now we’re partnering with biologists working to understand origins of life on our planet, and geologists, who are helping us to understand the geological processes that spawn magnetic fields, that store water, sequester water, on planets.”

How Our Solar System Stacks Up

We’ve found hundreds of planets, thousands of candidates. Most of the planets are multiple-planet systems. How many of the systems look like ours?

Statistical analysis of Kepler data indicates that there are ~1.6 planets per star (a lower limit). Around 1% of stars will have hot Jupiters, and that occurrence rate goes up if the star has more heavy elements and if the star is bigger. For Earths and super-Earths, occurrence rate is greater than 30 percent, probably 45 or 50 percent. Also, planets are prone to migrate away from the location they formed, just as 51 Peg B migrated in to a 4-day orbit. Theoreticians are convinced that planets move around all the time. In fact, there’s evidence that asteroids and comets scattered in a configuration that only makes sense if Uranus and Neptune were once between Jupiter and Saturn, and then went spiraling outward into wider orbits.

Astronomy as a Vision Plan for Earth

Fischer ended the talk by revisiting the dinosaurs, and what we as a species might be able to accomplish if we’re able to survive. “The dinosaurs were munching along as the asteroids were flying over their heads,” she said. “They had no idea. Of all the species that have existed, we are, I think, magnificent, because we are willing to look out and try to understand our place, our origin, our history, our fate. We’re the first species to be able to consider engineering solutions to some of the big threats. A lot of people say, this doesn’t seem important to me, let’s take all of that huge NASA budget—which is something like a half penny on the dollar—and use it to feed people. If you’re a business manager, you have to think about the day-to-day running of your business, but to be really successful—to be a Steve Jobs, a Bill Gates—you also need to have vision. That’s where I think astronomy plays a key role. We have vision—we’re looking out, and looking back, and understanding ourselves better for that.”

Direct Imaging of Planets

HR8799 direct imaging planet detections Credit: Marois et al (2010)

Today we have a guest blog from Sasha Hinkley talking about a different way of detecting exoplanets than the transit method we use at Planet Hunters. Sasha is a Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, CA. Sasha received his PhD from Columbia University in New York City and has been involved in the direct imaging of exoplanets for several years.

In recent years, astronomers have identified hundreds exoplanets (as well as over 2000 new candidates from the Kepler mission), launching the new and thriving field of exoplanetary science.  The vast majority of these objects have been discovered indirectly by observing the variations induced in their host star’s light.  The Doppler surveys detect stellar “wobbles” induced by the planets, and provide valuable information about the orbital separations, eccentricities, as well as lower limits on the masses of companion planets. At the same time, observations of planets that transit their host star, creating a brief dimming of the stellar light, can provide fundamental data on planet radii and even some coarse information about the compositions and atmospheres of these extremely hot planets.  However, studying those objects out of reach to the Doppler and transit methods will reveal completely new aspects of exoplanetary science in great detail.

The direct imaging of exoplanets, i.e. actually obtaining an image of exoplanets, is a technique that is sensitive to massive planets at much larger orbital distances—larger than even the orbital distance of our Neptune. This technique is already providing a completeley new and complementary set of parameters such as luminosity, as well as detailed spectroscopic information.  This spectroscopic information will provide clues to the planets’ atmospheric chemistry, compositions, and perhaps may even shed light on non-equilibrium chemistry associated with these objects.   Moreover, the direct imaging of these exoplanets will allow astronomers to more fully characterize the architecture of planetary systems, especially at young ages where the radial velocity methods are hampered by the instrinsic stellar “jitter” of the stars. Observing the placement of these planetary mass companions at very young ages serves as a “birth snapshot”, lending support to various planet formation models.

The major obstacle to the direct detection of planetary companions to nearby stars is the overwhelming brightness of the host star.  For example, if our solar system were viewed from 70 light years (average for a nearby star), Jupiter would appear roughly a billion  times fainter than our Sun with a separation on the sky comparable to the size of a dime viewed from 5 miles away. As such, these planets are completely lost in the glare of their host star. The key requirement is the suppression of the star’s overwhelming brightness through precise starlight control.

Astronomers are currently overcoming this incredibly challening task through precise starlight control, using sophisticated instruments and observing strategies at the largest ground-based telescopes.  So far, astronomers have successfully obtained direct images of a handful of exoplanets, including around the stars HR 8799, Fomalhaut,and Beta Pictoris.  These studies have demonstrated that direct imaging of exoplanets is now a mature technique and may become routine using ground-based observatories. More so, we will soon see a new fleet of instruments dedicated to detailed spectroscopic characterization of planetary mass companions making these kinds of discoveries routine, initiating an era of comparative exoplanetary science.

One such instrument, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), has been built by a consortium of American and Canadian institutions and will be deployed to the 8 meter Gemini South telescope in 2013.  This instrument will survey several hundred, nearby young stars achieving sensitivities that will allow it to image planets with masses a few times that of Jupiter, and  gather information on the detected exoplanets’ spectrum and any polarized light they may emit.  The Europoean counterpart to GPI is the SPHERE project  at the Very Large Telescope.  This project, also in the Southern Hemisphere, will be a similar dedicated exoplanet imaging instrument with similar science goals as GPI. A pre-cursor project called Project 1640, on the Palomar 5m telescope is currently testing some of the techniques to be used by these projects and hopes to image exoplanets in the Northern Hemisphere.  These instruments will likely obtain images of dozens of exoplanets in the next several years, and reveal completely new aspects of planetary science that we could not yet have imagined.

Image Credit: Marois et al (2010)

New Planet Hunters Co-discoveries

When I posted with news of our second paper’s submission last week I mentioned that the new paper from the Kepler team included a section on Planet Hunters.

Neptune-sized worlds may be the most common in the Universe

The section (7.4, since you’re asking) is fabulous, mentioning the ‘remarkable enthusiasm’ of Planet Hunters volunteers, who are not only have the ‘opportunity to experience the scientific method but also the possibility of experiencing the gratification of discovery’.

There should be a whole lot of gratification around, because as well as our own candidates the paper included details of several co-discoveries, where nine of Kepler’s planet candidates were independently identified by our volunteers. The following Planet Hunters thus can claim to have officially discovered planet candidates. In each case, the names in bold were the first to identify a transit in a particular light curve – congratulations to all involved.

KIC 5864975

pina1234, Mary Corfield, Frank Barnet, Derrick Martinez, Vince Brytus, Darin Ragozzine (!), Gary Butler, Robert Casey, Krishna Babu, ‘shutterbug’, Hein Min Tun, Juan Albornoz, Gerald R. Green, Robert Spiker, Natalie Van Cleef

KIC 11875734

Robert Gagliano (who was on the list for the recently announced candidates too), Malcolm Lambert, Di Miceli Gaetano, Hitesh Patel, Robert Rozanski, Penn Gwenn, Jari Paakkonen, ‘maya’, John Mackereth, ‘zocker’, Dominick Dennis, Carl-Johan Wikman, ‘chulej’, Oleg Tsybulskyi

KIC 8160953

Frank Barnet, John Robinson, ‘colinjdavis’, Jari Paakkonen, Carl Davidson, Bruno Mauguin, Jan Bernard, Lee Chapman, Hans Martin Schwengeler, ‘Aurelhun’, Pablo Barroso Rodriguez, Julie Donnell, Dani Iannarelli, Peter Kool, Simon Humphreys, Chris Price, Alan Bowler, Jeff Mack, Rafal Konkol

KIC 6504954

Patrick Gruber, Malcolm Wain, Andrew Young, Steve Harris, ‘planet10’, Juha Lindqvist, Navid Baraty, ‘ahora’, Julia Fedyakina, John Harper, Pablo Barroso Rodriguez, Sue Wilson, Mathew Hadfield, John Ord, Bob Chau, Calum Patterson, Matthew Connolly

KIC 7761918

Breeann Phillips, Abe Hoekstra, ‘ozanne’, Daniel Speir, ‘komandantmirko’, Daryll LaCourse, Daniel Getler, Gene Cumberland, Dave Skillman, Tony Hoffman, Joe Johnson, ‘Tem’, Steve Stav, Daniel Meyersohn, Frederico Centeno Selbach, Mark Riggs

KIC 3326377

‘ronalde000’, Bob Leask, ‘oneironautics’, Bartömiej Jaracz, Priscilla Nowajewski, ‘lolodec’, Michael Ware, Larry Melanson, Victor Gabriel Bibeo, ‘AtheistRamblings’, Stuart Lynn (!), Abe Hoekstra, Andrew Rose, ‘dalwhinnie’, Loic Petitpas

KIC 6268648

‘snark’, Fiona Wynn, Ilya Karpeev, Lily Lau, ‘nargatte’, Kristian U. Saetre, Lubomir Stiak, D Le Clercq, Jeremy Garrett, Lee Martin, Verena Resch, Robert Fletcher, Jason Muir, Nick Amsel, Michael Kavanagh, Anthony Goddard, Tom Hartfil-Allgood, Shannon McLaughlin, ‘Natframpton’, Peter Unitt, Steve House, Paul Wightman, Pooja Rathod, Simon Stockwell, Jenny Satelle, Owain Dewi Hughes, Richard Hopkins, Adam Bunce, Simon Gardiner, ‘snorrelo’, Thomas McGauran, ‘tom0366’, ‘Chippywheetoes’, Ben Galley, Kirsty McMonagle, Rich Haines, Adam Derdzikowski, ‘pat’, Mark Halstead

Multiplanets and the New Kepler Planet Candidate List

It’s been a very busy few weeks for the Planet Hunters science team. Chris submitted his paper and posted online announcing the discovery of two more planet candidates. In addition, I submitted (finally!!) my paper detailing the results of the Q1 classifications looking for short period planets and how well we do at finding transits from planets 2 earth radii and larger.  So stay tuned , more on the results from my paper in about a month when we’ll get the referee’s report back. Also the Kepler team have released their newest list of planet candidates in their latest paper which includes an excellent section on Planet Hunters and several co-discoveries of candidates that were on our candidates list that you’ve helped us find (more on that tomorrow).  The Kepler team have announced a whopping 2321 planet candidates orbiting 1790 stars. This includes 368 planetary systems with multiple transiting planets. We’re in the process of updating the Talk labels to identify those new candidates and new multiplanet systems found by the Kepler team.

A really nice website for looking up and sorting the planet parameters and host star properties of this latest batch of Kepler planet candidates is the NASA Exoplanet Archive  and also the Kepler website has a cool tool called the  Kepler Planet Candidate Data Explorer that allows you to plot the distribution of the candidates in terms of the planet properties and stellar properties or anything else you might be interested in looking at.

As you probably know, the  second planet candidate  KIC 10005758, detailed in Chris’s paper, was part of a multiplanet system where there are two planets transiting the host star. We found the longer period planet that first transited in Q2  and the Kepler team found the short period planet that had more than 2 visible transits in the Q1-Q6 observations. I’ve plotted the Q1-Q6 light curve below – the dashed red line is our Planet Hunters candidate (3.79 Earth radii with a 284 period orbit), the solid green (6.606 Earth radii with a period of 134.5 days) is the candidate identified by the Kepler team.

I’ve been thinking more about multplanet systems lately. One question I have is, are there are longer period transits that might have been missed  in  these systems we think are currently single transiting planet system? According to the Kepler team’s latest paper describing the new candidates list, they use a separate algorithm to look for repeating signals after they remove the known candidate signal from the light curve – if there aren’t many transits of the additional planet it might not show up when you look for periodic signals in the data. There are about 1420 single Kepler planet candidates. If anyone’s interested, I’ve listed them below with links to their source pages. Anyone fancy taking a look? Maybe we’ll find something interesting or some additional transits from a second planet.

Latest Kepler single planet candidates –

kplr011446443 14.4 Earth radii 2.4706132 days
kplr010666592 22.3 Earth radii 2.2047354 days
kplr010748390 4.7 Earth radii 4.8878003 days
kplr003861595 11.8 Earth radii 3.8493724 days
kplr011853905 3.7 Earth radii 3.2136641 days
kplr006922244 15.9 Earth radii 3.5224991 days
kplr005812701 13.2 Earth radii 17.855149 days
kplr009941662 22.8 Earth radii 1.7635877 days
kplr010874614 11.1 Earth radii 3.2346996 days
kplr008191672 17.4 Earth radii 3.5484657 days
kplr011804465 17.6 Earth radii 4.4379629 days
kplr009631995 11.3 Earth radii 7.8914502 days
kplr008866102 2.7 Earth radii 17.834381 days
kplr008845026 9.9 Earth radii 66.467694 days
kplr009527334 3.2 Earth radii 8.3137595 days
kplr006056992 20.9 Earth radii 10.431163 days
kplr011554435 6.3 Earth radii 9.4341577 days
kplr007051180 5.1 Earth radii 1.9510914 days
kplr003544595 1.5 Earth radii 4.7267482 days
kplr007199397 8.8 Earth radii 105.88531 days
kplr002571238 2.5 Earth radii 9.2870093 days
kplr010593626 2.1 Earth radii 289.86219 days
kplr007941200 3.3 Earth radii 65.704619 days
kplr005780885 16.1 Earth radii 4.8854892 days
kplr010264660 10.0 Earth radii 6.7901235 days
kplr008505215 3.4 Earth radii 580.0 days
kplr004055765 15.5 Earth radii 9.9664392 days
kplr008456679 3.7 Earth radii 1.7351363 days
kplr002444412 3.0 Earth radii 14.910745 days
kplr010318874 3.4 Earth radii 2.5080585 days
kplr008711794 3.4 Earth radii 8.9810082 days
kplr011250587 3.1 Earth radii 7.2569987 days
kplr009450647 2.9 Earth radii 9.9406782 days
kplr002306756 90.5 Earth radii 387.0 days
kplr003531558 1.4 Earth radii 24.993341 days
kplr008349582 2.8 Earth radii 11.523063 days
kplr008359498 10.9 Earth radii 3.5787827 days
kplr011359879 11.9 Earth radii 4.9427833 days
kplr007778437 9.6 Earth radii 5.0142325 days
kplr009818381 10.6 Earth radii 3.0240949 days
kplr008506766 22.9 Earth radii 48.937964 days
kplr012105051 5.4 Earth radii 2.6242336 days
kplr005446285 4.1 Earth radii 10.916384 days
kplr004180280 3.0 Earth radii 4.1762599 days
kplr003835670 5.5 Earth radii 14.557339 days
kplr002307199 5.5 Earth radii 13.447247 days
kplr008030148 3.7 Earth radii 5.6606911 days
kplr005084942 2.7 Earth radii 3.1055091 days
kplr008107380 2.5 Earth radii 14.006406 days
kplr006851425 2.3 Earth radii 11.119889 days
kplr009527915 2.7 Earth radii 13.22178 days
kplr002441495 2.7 Earth radii 12.493311 days
kplr011666881 2.4 Earth radii 4.9195764 days
kplr008692861 1.8 Earth radii 13.722342 days
kplr011402995 2.5 Earth radii 10.060791 days
kplr010810838 1.9 Earth radii 56.353873 days
kplr006442377 2.4 Earth radii 30.22935 days
kplr006803202 1.8 Earth radii 21.060459 days
kplr009663113 3.1 Earth radii 20.740285 days
kplr009573539 2.5 Earth radii 10.045607 days
kplr009651668 11.6 Earth radii 2.684329 days
kplr012019440 12.3 Earth radii 3.2432603 days
kplr007023960 14.6 Earth radii 30.882549 days
kplr005357901 9.3 Earth radii 3.7970171 days
kplr011391018 10.4 Earth radii 30.360446 days
kplr005771719 15.6 Earth radii 12.264862 days
kplr007950644 9.5 Earth radii 10.290999 days
kplr010799735 13.8 Earth radii 37.590272 days
kplr010904857 14.0 Earth radii 3.12083 days
kplr011502867 11.2 Earth radii 3.2175204 days
kplr009410930 9.9 Earth radii 1.8555577 days
kplr002987027 7.8 Earth radii 17.27629 days
kplr010019708 11.3 Earth radii 3.2686948 days
kplr006046540 8.9 Earth radii 7.3407239 days
kplr006849046 9.9 Earth radii 4.2253846 days
kplr007877496 11.4 Earth radii 1.7208604 days
kplr010619192 14.8 Earth radii 1.4857113 days
kplr009305831 7.3 Earth radii 3.246732 days
kplr007046804 7.5 Earth radii 11.720119 days
kplr005728139 7.8 Earth radii 5.3340867 days
kplr003762468 12.7 Earth radii 3.0038752 days
kplr010656508 9.9 Earth radii 372.10836 days
kplr006300348 6.2 Earth radii 5.6959013 days
kplr011046458 7.1 Earth radii 3.3118628 days
kplr009595827 12.9 Earth radii 3.9050817 days
kplr006305192 4.1 Earth radii 8.0251044 days
kplr003937519 4.2 Earth radii 3.4130377 days
kplr005801571 40.6 Earth radii 0.8385977 days
kplr005959753 2.0 Earth radii 8.3084852 days
kplr006185476 2.9 Earth radii 17.660114 days
kplr003847907 5.9 Earth radii 3.57321 days
kplr008491277 3.1 Earth radii 9.6137159 days
kplr008107225 2.1 Earth radii 5.6325655 days
kplr008041216 2.5 Earth radii 8.5083547 days
kplr006383785 3.6 Earth radii 5.6406608 days
kplr008026752 4.0 Earth radii 4.2868587 days
kplr011288051 1.7 Earth radii 13.821391 days
kplr003642741 5.5 Earth radii 7.2584656 days
kplr011295426 2.5 Earth radii 5.3987665 days
kplr011852982 1.9 Earth radii 13.815058 days
kplr009390653 2.0 Earth radii 9.5492728 days
kplr011187837 3.1 Earth radii 17.604437 days
kplr011752906 2.4 Earth radii 6.3831833 days
kplr005794240 10.2 Earth radii 2.4552405 days
kplr007021681 2.8 Earth radii 27.521741 days
kplr011548140 25.3 Earth radii 1.3786789 days
kplr005514383 2.6 Earth radii 6.8834027 days
kplr011231334 5.2 Earth radii 4.1574033 days
kplr005383248 2.7 Earth radii 16.238479 days
kplr010514430 2.0 Earth radii 20.719359 days
kplr012024120 1.3 Earth radii 3.5680647 days
kplr003425851 1.6 Earth radii 110.37908 days
kplr007670943 1.5 Earth radii 18.011336 days
kplr003102384 1.8 Earth radii 10.573769 days
kplr011133306 2.5 Earth radii 41.745912 days
kplr011401755 3.8 Earth radii 16.231204 days
kplr004141376 2.5 Earth radii 11.872914 days
kplr004143755 3.5 Earth radii 19.556634 days
kplr005695396 2.2 Earth radii 16.091924 days
kplr006196457 3.4 Earth radii 13.748761 days
kplr009592705 3.1 Earth radii 10.275394 days
kplr010386922 2.6 Earth radii 26.629176 days
kplr011075737 1.6 Earth radii 2.5866272 days
kplr011259686 2.2 Earth radii 34.435758 days
kplr011547513 1.8 Earth radii 5.3174114 days
kplr011802615 2.2 Earth radii 28.862308 days
kplr011905011 1.6 Earth radii 5.6518383 days
kplr012785320 1.4 Earth radii 19.963639 days
kplr002692377 2.1 Earth radii 1.5416821 days
kplr003642289 1.8 Earth radii 6.0025224 days
kplr003662838 5.2 Earth radii 24.854798 days
kplr005966322 3.1 Earth radii 60.929196 days
kplr006063220 1.6 Earth radii 4.6035711 days
kplr006071903 2.3 Earth radii 24.307983 days
kplr006291837 3.1 Earth radii 35.597429 days
kplr007700622 2.1 Earth radii 35.589436 days
kplr008121310 4.2 Earth radii 22.207918 days
kplr008156120 5.2 Earth radii 38.583359 days
kplr008684730 7.4 Earth radii 46.151586 days
kplr008753657 1.6 Earth radii 2.4263076 days
kplr009139084 2.2 Earth radii 5.8359731 days
kplr009881662 1.5 Earth radii 3.2542815 days
kplr011361646 2.3 Earth radii 7.9740591 days
kplr010285631 3.5 Earth radii 18.684209 days
kplr010290666 1.9 Earth radii 5.4585137 days
kplr010337258 2.3 Earth radii 13.285388 days
kplr010470206 4.9 Earth radii 46.566778 days
kplr010545066 1.9 Earth radii 19.783025 days
kplr010616571 16.8 Earth radii 23.673188 days
kplr011015108 3.3 Earth radii 39.309241 days
kplr011074541 2.7 Earth radii 29.88571 days
kplr011100383 2.4 Earth radii 12.924909 days
kplr011194032 3.5 Earth radii 28.511096 days
kplr011394027 2.9 Earth radii 14.386786 days
kplr011395587 2.4 Earth radii 12.991603 days
kplr011521793 2.5 Earth radii 27.081734 days
kplr011566064 9.2 Earth radii 152.10483 days
kplr011568987 2.3 Earth radii 15.959927 days
kplr011621223 2.4 Earth radii 4.9033487 days
kplr011624249 6.3 Earth radii 1.8270813 days
kplr012107021 0.7 Earth radii 5.9417382 days
kplr012404954 1.5 Earth radii 3.2475829 days
kplr011623629 2.3 Earth radii 81.737475 days
kplr003545478 10.6 Earth radii 75.112019 days
kplr004815520 5.0 Earth radii 31.57868 days
kplr006603043 19.2 Earth radii 110.32161 days
kplr005652983 84.2 Earth radii 498.39282 days
kplr006471021 8.5 Earth radii 125.63064 days
kplr007364176 2.5 Earth radii 135.18981 days
kplr008686097 3.0 Earth radii 172.69092 days
kplr012356617 10.4 Earth radii 600.0 days
kplr003353050 1.7 Earth radii 5.0800604 days
kplr003446746 2.1 Earth radii 13.144941 days
kplr003733628 2.2 Earth radii 13.899645 days
kplr003831053 3.0 Earth radii 6.1493618 days
kplr003964109 2.0 Earth radii 21.416645 days
kplr004247092 39.4 Earth radii 21.056478 days
kplr005444548 2.2 Earth radii 13.249212 days
kplr005449777 40.0 Earth radii 7.2168889 days
kplr005683743 6.7 Earth radii 4.1470197 days
kplr006289650 7.2 Earth radii 166.78821 days
kplr006879865 11.7 Earth radii 19.193091 days
kplr007975727 9.4 Earth radii 22.41833 days
kplr008219673 31.1 Earth radii 20.13151 days
kplr008352537 3.6 Earth radii 6.0103736 days
kplr009115800 11.2 Earth radii 4.4541913 days
kplr009214713 14.0 Earth radii 480.0 days
kplr009478990 9.4 Earth radii 21.087174 days
kplr009967884 11.8 Earth radii 5.4283501 days
kplr010016874 3.3 Earth radii 16.301293 days
kplr010418224 6.5 Earth radii 6.8731791 days
kplr010616679 3.9 Earth radii 8.6001206 days
kplr010717241 2.3 Earth radii 12.376463 days
kplr010858832 3.5 Earth radii 5.2634076 days
kplr012470954 3.9 Earth radii 1.90221 days
kplr003833007 2.5 Earth radii 16.217504 days
kplr003847138 2.2 Earth radii 11.722936 days
kplr006291033 2.4 Earth radii 3.7059697 days
kplr007098355 3.0 Earth radii 29.007796 days
kplr007504328 8.0 Earth radii 53.717983 days
kplr008043638 4.0 Earth radii 17.587568 days
kplr008845205 2.5 Earth radii 18.477659 days
kplr008891318 4.1 Earth radii 350.0 days
kplr009008220 7.6 Earth radii 9.3910376 days
kplr009583881 5.0 Earth radii 18.009297 days
kplr009589524 3.4 Earth radii 22.184312 days
kplr009703198 5.8 Earth radii 10.32908 days
kplr009844088 4.6 Earth radii 3.7508299 days
kplr010123064 3.0 Earth radii 4.2437425 days
kplr010155434 3.2 Earth radii 12.706784 days
kplr010599206 2.1 Earth radii 18.427869 days
kplr010934674 2.5 Earth radii 16.543015 days
kplr010990886 2.8 Earth radii 11.023423 days
kplr011015323 3.4 Earth radii 34.188957 days
kplr011134879 2.5 Earth radii 4.3016712 days
kplr011497977 2.4 Earth radii 4.7986252 days
kplr012061222 2.2 Earth radii 17.205222 days
kplr012404305 1.8 Earth radii 22.183387 days
kplr012834874 2.6 Earth radii 7.6587739 days
kplr002557816 1.9 Earth radii 9.379012 days
kplr003559935 3.8 Earth radii 29.911496 days
kplr003966801 2.0 Earth radii 25.695968 days
kplr004454752 2.1 Earth radii 1.6168863 days
kplr004847534 1.8 Earth radii 9.6684636 days
kplr004951877 2.2 Earth radii 24.795128 days
kplr005340644 1.9 Earth radii 8.2224801 days
kplr005461440 2.1 Earth radii 40.60709 days
kplr005780715 3.1 Earth radii 1.5831556 days
kplr005812960 3.2 Earth radii 18.492336 days
kplr006838050 2.8 Earth radii 6.5100362 days
kplr006937692 3.8 Earth radii 35.181123 days
kplr008015907 3.5 Earth radii 2.7523623 days
kplr008162789 3.6 Earth radii 10.160956 days
kplr008265218 2.9 Earth radii 12.82994 days
kplr008934495 2.3 Earth radii 4.5923916 days
kplr009119458 5.1 Earth radii 11.531837 days
kplr009157634 3.1 Earth radii 2.1047142 days
kplr010266615 2.1 Earth radii 10.940266 days
kplr010395543 2.8 Earth radii 3.6874687 days
kplr010454313 2.6 Earth radii 4.2216437 days
kplr010513530 2.6 Earth radii 16.549432 days
kplr010873260 3.3 Earth radii 5.8529809 days
kplr010965008 3.0 Earth radii 162.3394 days
kplr011073351 2.0 Earth radii 2.8202099 days
kplr011090765 2.8 Earth radii 21.217109 days
kplr011656721 2.4 Earth radii 13.646246 days
kplr012116489 4.2 Earth radii 25.302868 days
kplr012600735 3.1 Earth radii 21.30003 days
kplr004165473 2.3 Earth radii 13.023636 days
kplr005122112 9.8 Earth radii 3.05517 days
kplr005443837 7.3 Earth radii 3.6584892 days
kplr005774349 2.6 Earth radii 15.65558 days
kplr005978361 2.1 Earth radii 9.1784753 days
kplr006422367 1.2 Earth radii 4.3313457 days
kplr006501635 2.6 Earth radii 23.675226 days
kplr006665695 1.7 Earth radii 5.3789005 days
kplr006707833 1.8 Earth radii 15.284623 days
kplr007119481 2.2 Earth radii 25.855148 days
kplr007595157 1.3 Earth radii 3.3835275 days
kplr008367113 2.5 Earth radii 24.315867 days
kplr008558011 2.4 Earth radii 39.678657 days
kplr008565266 3.9 Earth radii 6.4124599 days
kplr008625925 2.8 Earth radii 6.5212343 days
kplr008822216 3.2 Earth radii 6.9969311 days
kplr009076513 1.5 Earth radii 2.4370184 days
kplr009279669 2.4 Earth radii 3.7221801 days
kplr009570741 2.2 Earth radii 15.779554 days
kplr009607164 2.6 Earth radii 14.034832 days
kplr009631762 1.6 Earth radii 10.355742 days
kplr009957627 2.7 Earth radii 39.750621 days
kplr010388286 1.4 Earth radii 1.6826933 days
kplr010656823 2.5 Earth radii 8.3077831 days
kplr010676824 2.5 Earth radii 6.4545176 days
kplr010718726 2.3 Earth radii 3.5957356 days
kplr012459913 2.5 Earth radii 12.913842 days
kplr004832837 1.5 Earth radii 2.6280998 days
kplr005441980 6.4 Earth radii 5.8939913 days
kplr005608566 14.8 Earth radii 4.3969343 days
kplr005686174 1.8 Earth radii 14.282318 days
kplr006309763 11.3 Earth radii 3.251658 days
kplr007368664 7.9 Earth radii 12.874686 days
kplr009846086 41.0 Earth radii 37.865195 days
kplr010353968 3.1 Earth radii 9.0708078 days
kplr012417486 7.0 Earth radii 155.04292 days
kplr004449034 46.6 Earth radii 38.138187 days
kplr004478168 2.1 Earth radii 14.586667 days
kplr004563268 2.5 Earth radii 7.7519792 days
kplr004644604 1.9 Earth radii 14.485882 days
kplr004656049 2.7 Earth radii 40.699443 days
kplr004827723 1.5 Earth radii 7.2385188 days
kplr004841374 5.3 Earth radii 161.47896 days
kplr005020319 2.7 Earth radii 16.719787 days
kplr005120087 2.3 Earth radii 17.97988 days
kplr005121511 2.4 Earth radii 30.996444 days
kplr005131180 1.8 Earth radii 14.851757 days
kplr005356593 33.2 Earth radii 45.977864 days
kplr005531694 1.6 Earth radii 5.1694955 days
kplr005613330 2.3 Earth radii 23.449545 days
kplr005786676 2.3 Earth radii 11.954776 days
kplr005796675 2.6 Earth radii 16.080672 days
kplr005941160 3.0 Earth radii 8.5947676 days
kplr006125481 2.5 Earth radii 23.205805 days
kplr006267535 3.2 Earth radii 6.079629 days
kplr006365156 2.0 Earth radii 10.214019 days
kplr006707835 2.6 Earth radii 22.248183 days
kplr006752502 5.3 Earth radii 4.305218 days
kplr007033671 1.9 Earth radii 9.4893825 days
kplr007040629 1.7 Earth radii 4.2286992 days
kplr007124613 2.2 Earth radii 4.4174634 days
kplr007277317 12.1 Earth radii 16.338952 days
kplr007529266 7.2 Earth radii 8.6001453 days
kplr007619236 10.7 Earth radii 562.14245 days
kplr007630229 6.0 Earth radii 278.12221 days
kplr007730747 30.6 Earth radii 4.0349149 days
kplr007764367 2.8 Earth radii 3.1739047 days
kplr007906882 11.1 Earth radii 52.513565 days
kplr007976520 1.4 Earth radii 4.1783824 days
kplr008161561 2.1 Earth radii 3.275783 days
kplr008361905 1.7 Earth radii 15.873692 days
kplr008802165 2.8 Earth radii 17.421125 days
kplr008805348 2.5 Earth radii 29.907574 days
kplr008878187 4.0 Earth radii 3.0321542 days
kplr008891278 11.4 Earth radii 12.718706 days
kplr009162741 1.4 Earth radii 1.3686106 days
kplr009266431 2.9 Earth radii 18.396319 days
kplr009578686 2.0 Earth radii 21.384502 days
kplr009590976 2.1 Earth radii 5.3749187 days
kplr009640976 0.9 Earth radii 2.1781266 days
kplr009702072 2.6 Earth radii 4.1820098 days
kplr009846348 6.3 Earth radii 26.893084 days
kplr009873254 1.9 Earth radii 14.70742 days
kplr009950612 1.5 Earth radii 9.0342194 days
kplr009964801 2.8 Earth radii 13.724462 days
kplr009965439 2.6 Earth radii 46.4073 days
kplr010068383 10.7 Earth radii 7.3049603 days
kplr010221013 11.3 Earth radii 7.1893676 days
kplr010265898 3.3 Earth radii 1.2602573 days
kplr010272442 3.2 Earth radii 24.543571 days
kplr010287242 4.4 Earth radii 22.341326 days
kplr010345478 5.1 Earth radii 14.49836 days
kplr010386984 1.5 Earth radii 1.2870749 days
kplr010395381 2.2 Earth radii 17.671684 days
kplr010418797 22.8 Earth radii 23.355343 days
kplr010464078 7.5 Earth radii 19.404001 days
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kplr010583066 3.3 Earth radii 6.0292722 days
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kplr010987985 3.1 Earth radii 16.012851 days
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kplr011138155 10.9 Earth radii 4.9593347 days
kplr011153539 2.3 Earth radii 4.4988398 days
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kplr011391957 2.4 Earth radii 8.3539166 days
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kplr011465813 13.4 Earth radii 616880.0 days
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kplr011507101 2.3 Earth radii 38.377836 days
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kplr002713049 2.1 Earth radii 2.5391695 days
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kplr003641726 2.5 Earth radii 9.0293047 days
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kplr004049131 3.8 Earth radii 20.505935 days
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kplr004476123 2.5 Earth radii 22.366576 days
kplr004544670 32.6 Earth radii 34.844086 days
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kplr005283542 3.3 Earth radii 5.9758073 days
kplr005358624 10.7 Earth radii 3.5256325 days
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kplr005534814 12.3 Earth radii 4.8593843 days
kplr005651104 8.1 Earth radii 3.0403293 days
kplr005881688 6.2 Earth radii 4.1904091 days
kplr006022556 3.7 Earth radii 3.7098842 days
kplr006032497 3.5 Earth radii 16.329857 days
kplr006061119 13.6 Earth radii 27.807543 days
kplr006191521 4.7 Earth radii 80.871588 days
kplr006276477 2.4 Earth radii 10.35546 days
kplr006291653 8.3 Earth radii 10.526294 days
kplr006392727 5.4 Earth radii 4.5835184 days
kplr006422070 2.3 Earth radii 3.7618485 days
kplr006435936 2.3 Earth radii 56.056284 days
kplr006522242 10.8 Earth radii 41.4083 days
kplr006526710 13.7 Earth radii 39.748877 days
kplr006599919 11.7 Earth radii 13.610141 days
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kplr006784235 2.6 Earth radii 3.1678756 days
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kplr009205907 4.8 Earth radii 12.022982 days
kplr008463346 1.4 Earth radii 16.79684 days
kplr009011825 1.6 Earth radii 37.330768 days
kplr005174858 1.8 Earth radii 7.9710542 days
kplr011074835 2.9 Earth radii 6.0331004 days
kplr009635606 1.7 Earth radii 48.892755 days
kplr003728701 2.6 Earth radii 51.129543 days
kplr001849702 2.8 Earth radii 39.831013 days
kplr012306058 2.0 Earth radii 7.4168864 days
kplr006183511 1.1 Earth radii 0.7273148 days
kplr012469800 1.1 Earth radii 1.301993 days
kplr008676148 2.5 Earth radii 28.625246 days
kplr009696358 0.8 Earth radii 6.9815756 days
kplr004484336 1.4 Earth radii 8.9432649 days
kplr011622985 1.8 Earth radii 18.024474 days
kplr008757824 1.2 Earth radii 3.656953 days
kplr009832208 2.0 Earth radii 88.07081 days
kplr005350244 1.1 Earth radii 12.571439 days
kplr005374403 1.2 Earth radii 40.836374 days
kplr006605493 1.0 Earth radii 9.3095455 days
kplr007259298 0.9 Earth radii 3.2394254 days
kplr005175024 1.4 Earth radii 23.477714 days
kplr009026749 1.4 Earth radii 66.559841 days
kplr008247770 1.1 Earth radii 8.2813051 days
kplr006867588 1.0 Earth radii 0.8262695 days
kplr012257999 27.7 Earth radii 18.55616 days
kplr006922203 42.3 Earth radii 13.330973 days
kplr009896018 1.4 Earth radii 2.7296513 days
kplr011037511 1.6 Earth radii 3.1160819 days
kplr011818872 0.9 Earth radii 12.736723 days
kplr011771430 2.0 Earth radii 40.032518 days
kplr010387742 0.7 Earth radii 3.0328016 days
kplr007673841 1.2 Earth radii 5.3419133 days
kplr005546691 1.4 Earth radii 12.947711 days
kplr012156347 1.1 Earth radii 5.7795718 days
kplr010468885 1.3 Earth radii 0.6640818 days
kplr006765135 2.2 Earth radii 175.60855 days
kplr008212002 0.8 Earth radii 14.797634 days
kplr008004903 2.4 Earth radii 11.254547 days
kplr008883329 1.8 Earth radii 9.1825212 days
kplr007446631 1.3 Earth radii 29.22604 days
kplr007531677 0.9 Earth radii 2.6222502 days
kplr010068659 1.3 Earth radii 11.476854 days
kplr002443393 1.4 Earth radii 73.698351 days
kplr009019191 1.3 Earth radii 14.433246 days
kplr005095635 1.4 Earth radii 0.7544552 days
kplr006269070 1.4 Earth radii 2.7612098 days
kplr009712350 2.8 Earth radii 51.573938 days
kplr008025596 1.6 Earth radii 4.6951528 days
kplr004915638 1.3 Earth radii 8.6298929 days
kplr010916600 0.9 Earth radii 5.5766107 days
kplr009153570 1.6 Earth radii 3.8136681 days
kplr011768142 1.5 Earth radii 38.098241 days
kplr006124512 1.0 Earth radii 8.384691 days
kplr010070468 1.1 Earth radii 1.681873 days
kplr007584650 1.5 Earth radii 44.99955 days
kplr011337566 1.1 Earth radii 7.1282551 days
kplr001995519 2.1 Earth radii 19.939901 days
kplr006198182 0.6 Earth radii 3.8814555 days
kplr009574179 0.7 Earth radii 3.9901793 days
kplr006211812 1.5 Earth radii 2.5240738 days
kplr011391755 3.1 Earth radii 25.092328 days
kplr009088780 7.8 Earth radii 33.180895 days
kplr008894646 1.1 Earth radii 3.5558626 days
kplr011962284 1.4 Earth radii 8.8391516 days
kplr004346178 2.0 Earth radii 16.128224 days
kplr009664142 1.6 Earth radii 13.563149 days
kplr010018233 1.7 Earth radii 16.295712 days
kplr008636539 1.1 Earth radii 6.7738916 days
kplr009283156 0.5 Earth radii 5.224152 days
kplr008547429 1.1 Earth radii 11.659755 days
kplr009893318 2.9 Earth radii 18.016626 days
kplr003426367 1.0 Earth radii 2.1043158 days
kplr005562090 2.1 Earth radii 28.841786 days
kplr005342061 2.4 Earth radii 64.046365 days
kplr005513012 1.2 Earth radii 0.6793614 days
kplr010917043 2.2 Earth radii 205.38314 days

2nd Planet Hunters Paper Submitted

Way back in January I blogged about our announcement of two new candidates, confidently predicting that the paper would be out in the next few days. That didn’t happen for all sorts of reasons, but it’s now submitted to the Astronomical Journal. Rather than wait until we get the referee’s seal of approval (or a lot of criticism!), we’ve made the paper public via the arXiv – you can read it here.

Congratulations to Robert Gagliano, Joe Gilardi, Kian Jek, Jari-Pekka Paakkonen & Tjapko Smits

As the picture on the blog post shows, five volunteers are co-authors, many more are thanked in the paper, and there’s a link to the authors page to give credit to all our volunteers for taking part. In the month or so that we’ve had since the conference, we’ve done some more work to pin down the behaviour of these systems. The first exciting new discovery was the length of time between transits was changing slightly for KIC4552729. These transit timing variations, or TTVs, suggest that there’s something else there, another body whose gravity is affecting the orbit of the planet candidate whose transits we do detect. We need more data to work out exactly what’s going on, but the immediate implication is that it’s more likely that our planet candidate is real, as it’s harder to create a three-body system using interference from background eclipsing binaries.

We also – mostly for fun – worked out whether the two planets that Planet Hunters had uncovered could be in the habitable zone of their star, that thin sliver of space where liquid water, and hence life, might be able to survive on the surface of a planet. Now, both of ours are almost certainly too large to be anything but gaseous, and one has to make a planet’s worth of assumptions about things like its albedo (how much light is reflected and how much absorbed by the atmosphere) and its atmosphere. Nonetheless, the encouraging thing is that both of our candidates seem to lie in the habitable zone of their star system, making them interesting targets.

As if that wasn’t enough for one day, also on the arXiv and submitted to the journal is the latest Kepler paper announcing new candidates. They include a section on Planet Hunters, and announce another handful of independent discoveries where we found candidates they’d already uncovered. More on that – including a list of Planet Hunters involved in those discoveries – in the next few days.

Two new discoveries announced at AAS

We’re delighted to announce that you’ve done it again, with two new planet hunters discoveries being announced at the 219th meeting of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Austin, Texas today. Both of these were missed by standard procedures and have only been found because of the efforts of volunteers.

Both of these were sequences of transits that were picked up by planet hunters volunteers, both using the main site and via Talk, and we’ve done enough work that we’re confident that they’re real. They thus become the third and fourth planet candidates to be discovered by Planet Hunters. Congratulations to those involved both on Talk and in the interface.

Discovery of a transit around KIC10005758

Preliminary work indicates that the first, around the star KIC 4552729, has a 97.5 day period and is approximately 4 times the radius of the Earth. Its transit was caught amongst Quarter 2 data, and we’ve confirmed that it repeats in later data. We can’t quite call this a planet yet, but with more than 95% certainty in our discovery it becomes an official planet candidate.

The second candidate is even more exciting. It orbits around the star KIC 10005758, has a 284 day period and is just 3.3 times the size of the Earth. The first transit was caught in Quarter 2, and analysis by the Kepler team caught another, larger planet, closer to its star and orbiting it every 132 days. Not only is it exciting to have the first Planet Hunters multiplanet system, but this makes it much more unlikely that we’re being fooled by a background eclipsing binary.

I’ll post more after my talk, and we hope to have a paper finished and uploaded in the next couple of days. In the meantime, congratulations to our roll of honour :

Lubomir Stiak, Kian Jek, Robert Gagliano, Pamela Fitch, Dr Johann Sejpka, Jari Paakkonen, Gregoire P.A. Boscher, Matthew Lysne, Thanos Koukoulis, Andre Engels, Ben Myers, Daniel Posner, Terrence Goodwin, Theron Warlick, Charles Bell, ‘damalimaan’, Sean Parkinson, Samuel Randall, Eduardo Mariño, Frank Barnet, Terrence Goodwin, Ewa Tyc-Karpinska, Heinz W. Edelmann, Lynn van Rooijen-McCullough, Gary Duffy, ‘kamil’, Branislav Marz, ‘Adnyre’ and Colin Pennycuick.

If you’d like to join them as discoverers of planet candidates, then keep clicking at Planet Hunters – there must be more in there to find, and we have new data coming shortly to keep you all busy!

Chris & the Planet Hunters team.

PS I’m struck in looking through that list of names as to how international the Planet Hunters community is. I’d like to thank Lech Mankiewicz and his team who led the charge to make Planet Hunters available in other languages.